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Photo Left:  Jackson Military Road cut exiting Washington, Arkansas, to the North East (2005)

This web site is intended to provide information for students and classrooms that have

interest in the route and history of the Old Southwest Trail in Arkansas.

 

 

 

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SWT Research Guide

 

RESEARCH RESOURCE GUIDE

Southwest Trail Research Collection*

Sequoyah National Research Center

*[The Southwest Trail Research Collection was compiled and this resource guide

produced through a grant from the Arkansas Humanities Council.]

           

            The following entries refer to folders in the Southwest Trail research files assembled during the tenure of the Arkansas Humanities Council grant or to books in the library of the Sequoyah National Research Center.  Materials in folders represent the efforts of a number of people to locate, copy or note, or collect in digital format, relevant materials.  Names of those who collected and added the items to the research files are noted on the folders for the researcher’s information.  The absence of a name indicates that the material was retrieved by staff of the Sequoyah National Research Center.  The collection also includes the correspondence between researchers, mentors, humanities scholars, and institutional personnel; these files will prove useful to researchers for the discussions concerning research strategies and locations of collections and individual items related to the Southwest Trail.  Scott Akridge generously allowed the Center to photocopy those items from his extensive collection of research on the Southwest Trail that Center staff felt was most relevant to the current project.  His materials have been kept intact, and a list of the items is added at the end of the list below. An inventory of materials in his complete collection can be found at the beginning of his materials.   References to books may be to library items or to folders containing copied selections from books. Some items contain information related to more than one subject category and are listed in the category that seems most significant in the item.

            A small number of items submitted by researchers in digital format have not been added to the list but will be added before a final report goes to the Arkansas Humanities Council.

            All materials are on file in the Center and are open to the public.  The folders are arranged in subject or records-type series that seem most useful to the researcher.

            Items inside each series have not been finally arranged and otherwise processed for archival storage.  Final processing will occur after the tenure of the grant, and the materials will be placed on the Center’s web site (http://ualr.edu/sequoyah) and entered into the Center’s online catalog.

 

Roads and Trails

 

            Although the content of some of these files relate to the Southwest Trail north of the Arkansas River and other trails in the state, the vast majority of files relate the Little Rock to Fulton corridor.  Here, as in other categories of files, the researcher should use the files as leads to files in other categories.  For example, the file for Hot Spring County should lead the researcher to Hot Spring County files under the Places category, General Land Office Records, People, etc.  Files listed under the names of roads are often followed by a subheading that lists places, which should send the researcher to the Places category of files.

 

Early Arkansas—by John Fordyce—1919.  General treatment of roads in early Arkansas.

 

Heritage Trails.  A Guide to Historic Arkansas Trails.

 

Heritage Trails System.  Contains a draft of the 2009 General Assembly bill and correspondence.  Correspondents:  McLarty, Heifner, Littlefield, Camp, Young.

 

Hot Spring County—“Early Roads of Hot Spring county,” The Heritage 1 (1971) 25-26

 

Military Road—1846.  Brief news story about Tennessee Mounted Gunmen traveling the road to Washington.

 

Military Road—Fort Smith to Red River.  Foreman, Carolyn, “Report of Captain John Stuart….”  Contains Stuart’s report and historic introduction by Foreman.

 

Military Road—Galveston to Fort Gibson—An Act to authorize and provide construction (1867).  Concerns railroad building.

 

Military Road—Lawrence County.  General history of the roads through the county.

 

Military Roads—Funding—American State Papers, Military Affairs—24th Congress, 2nd Session, No. 709 (1837).  Includes an estimate of funds needed to complete certain roads in Arkansas, including the road from Missouri line to Fulton.

 

Military Road—Unity to Friendship.  Brief statement about road upkeep.

 

Military Roads—Funding—Senate Document 40, 24th Congress, 2nd Session (1837).  Includes an estimate of funds needed to complete certain roads in Arkansas, including the road from Missouri line to Fulton.

 

New Orleans to Hot Springs Road—Darby, William, The Emigrant’s Guide—1818.  Lists places and distances.

 

Old Military Road—“Arkansas on Horseback over the Old Military Road,” New York Times, December 27, 1874.  Descriptive account of travels.

 

Old Military Road—Gaither, Zella Hargrove, The History of the Old Military Road and Indian Trails in Arkansas.  A scattered, anecdotal narrative.

 

Old Military Road—Gephart, Violet .  “The Military Road in Clark County,” Heritage 35 (2008):  120-122.  Focuses on events related to the road with much emphasis on Barkman.

 

Old Military Road—White County.  Recounts the visit of White County Historical Society members to significant sites along the Road.

 

Postal Routes—1823.  Proposal for weekly mail between St. Louis and Little Rock and from Little Rock to Natchioches.

 

Railroad—Little Rock and Jacksonport—1853.  Article from The Western Journal and Civilian gives detailed information about people, places, and distances.

 

Removal Routes. W. H. Halliburton, “Trail of the Indians,” Arkansas Gazette Magazine, August 27, 1938.  Focuses on the Ouachita and Caddo River areas of the trail.

 

Roads across Arkansas—1687-1818.  Robert B. Myers’ chronological arrangement of quotations and summaries from resources that discuss or mention roads during the period.

 

Roads across Arkansas—1819-1836—Pages 1-268.  Robert B. Myers’ chronological arrangement of quotations and summaries from resources that discuss or mention roads during the period.

 

Roads across Arkansas—1819-1836—Pages 269-398.  Robert B. Myers’ chronological arrangement of quotations and summaries from resources that discuss or mention roads during the period.

 

Roads and Trails—Hempstead County—1824.  Tells how many residences were along the road.

 

Roads, Boundaries, etc.  Clarence Carter, ed., Territorial Papers of the United States, Missouri, Vol. 15, pp. 180-186, 483-484. Letters, containing some good description, 1816.

 

Roads—Arkansas—Appropriations—General Files—Indian Removal.   See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Roads—Arkansas—Costs—1836—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Roads—Description—1836—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Roads—Hot Spring County.  Rushing, Anthony, “The Elusive Hot Springs Roads,” The Saline 4 (June 1989) 65-67. 

 

Roads—Jackson to Washington—1836.  Letters of Lewis Cass and Thomas F. Hunt regarding the route of the road.

 

Roads—Little Rock to Fort Towson—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Roads—Little Rock to Washington—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Roads—Old Military—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Roads—Washington to Jackson—1831.  Advertisement for sealed proposals to build.

 

Roads—Washington to Jackson—1831.  Letter of R. D. C. Collins concerning distances and road conditions.

 

Southwest Trail—Condition—1836.  Relies on Featherstonehaugh’s account.

 

Southwest Trail—History (Arkansas Encyclopedia).  Web retrieved article by Scott Akridge

 

Southwest Trail—History—Mary Dawson, “Following the Southwest Trail.”  Focuses on the trail as a route to Texas

 

St. Louis to Washington Road—1828.  Transcription of a bill to survey and open a road. 

 

Stage Road—Washington to Little Rock—1839

 

Stage Road—Washington to Little Rock—1839.  Advertisement for Dr. George A. Renner, located on the stage road.

 

Southwest Trail—GPS Readings.  Reading for significant sites along the corridor under investigation.

 

Southwest Trail Related Extracts from the Arkansas Gazette.  Extracts by Scott Akridge.  Items transcribed cover the period 1831-1838.

 

Transportation—Arkansas—1819-1840.  Photocopy of article by Walter Moffatt in Arkansas Historical Quarterly 15 (1956), 187-201.

 

Travelers’ Accounts

 

            The materials contained in this category are the accounts of travelers over the Southwest Trail during the first half of the nineteenth century.  Any researcher who presumes to study the Southwest Trail must read these files.  The researcher should also consult the categories of People and Places for information on the people and places mentioned in the travelers’ accounts.

 

Bell, John—Journal—1820.  Excerpts from Harlin M. Fuller and LeRoy R. Hafen, edition, 1973.  Bell was part of Long’s expedition to the Rocky Mountains.

 

Cox, Isaac—“Six Days in Washington, Arkansas”—1852.  Letter dated November 1852 in Fayette County, Texas, recounts six days’ stay at Washington and records the miles between places in Arkansas. Copy of typescript, Southwest Arkansas Regional Archives, SMF #482.

 

Engelman, George—“Letters from Arkansas”—1837.  Photocopy of Jerome Jansma and Harriet H. Jansma, “Engleman Revisits Arkansas, The New State,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 11(Winter 1992): 328-356.  Excerpts.  His narrative begins at Fourche du Mas and he records his observations as he travels toward Little Rock.

 

Featherstonhaugh, George W.—Excursion through the Slave States—1844.  Excerpts.

 

Gerstacker, Fredrich—In the Arkansas Backwoods—1839-1842.  Excerpts.  This folder also contains maps indicating Gerstacker’s travels in Arkansas

 

Meech, Joseph B.—Diary.  Excerpt reprinted in  Margaret Ross, “Along the ‘Washitta’,Arkansas Gazette, June 17, 1960.

 

Millard’s Journal—1837—File 6, Box 3—Chickasaw Removal.  Daily journal of occurrence during removal of a party of Chickasaws under his direction from Memphis to  the Choctaw Nation.  See Chickasaw Removal Collection.

 

Moore, Clinton Harrison—Diary—1839.  Account of travels from McNairy County, Tennessee to Louisiana, Texas, and other points.  Segments related to travels from Little Rock to Hempstead County are most relevant.  Typescript by Larry and Kathryn Priest.  Web retrieved.

 

Morris, T. A.—1841.  “The Antioch Meeting-House on Wolf Creek, Pike County, Arkansas. . .,” The Gems of Pike County Arkansas 6 (Winter 1995), 1-2, contains descriptions of the area of Antoine Creek, Wolf Creek, Little Missouri River.

 

Ridgway, Robert—Journal—1841-1842.  Nancy Britton, “Travels from Batesville to the Texas Border:  The Journal of Robert Ridgway, 1841-1842,” The Clark County Historical Journal (1990), 111-115.  The Journal covers the period December 1841 and January 1842.  Britton narrates Ridgway’s travels and quotes passages from the original diary, which was in the hands of Paul Wright, Sr. of Batesville at the time of his death prior to publication.

 

Stevenson, William—1813-1814.  Photocopy of “William Stevenson,” The Gems of Pike County, Arkansas 7 (Summer 1996), 81-89.  Reprint excerpts from Stevenson’s autobiography related to his travels in what is now Pike County and environs in 1813 and 1814.

 

Switzler, William—A Trip to the South—1836.  See Akridge Collection below.

 

Switzler, William—My Second Tour in the South—1836.  See Akridge Collection below.

 

Van Horne, Lieut.  Jefferson—Journals of Occurrences—1832.  Journal No. 1 is a daily journal of events during removal of a group of Choctaws and their horses led by Van Horne, beginning November 2, 1832, near Vicksburg, Mississippi, crossing the Mississippi River and traveling overland to connect with the SWT southwest of Little Rock.  Gives mileage between campsites.  Journal No. 2 is a daily journal of events, beginning November 29, 1832, as he led a group of  Six Towns Choctaws from the ferry at Little Rock along the SWT to the Choctaw Nation by way of Washington.  Transcribed by Carolyn Y. Kent.

 

Williams, L. S.—Journey—Little Rock to Choctaw Boundary—1832.  Photocopy of “Arkansas Choctaw,” Missionary Herald, 28 (July 1832), 223-225.  Brief but interesting account of the missionaries’ journey by ox wagon from Little Rock to Washington.

 

Commentary about Travelers

 

            Researchers will find the scholarly works listed in this category useful for putting the traveler’s movements in Arkansas in context related to the Southwest Trail.  See also the Akridge Collection below.

 

Engelman, George.  Jerome Jansma and Harriet H. Jansma, “George Engelmann in Arkansas Territory,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 50 (Autumn 1991), 225-228.

 

Featherstonhaugh—Berkley and Berkley, George William Featherstonhaugh, the First U. S. Government Geologist (Tuscaloosa:  University of Alabama Press, 1988).  Selected pages relating to Featherstonhaugh’s travels.

 

Featherstonhaugh—Encyclopedia of Arkansas—Akridge, Scott.  Web retrieved.

 

Gerstaecker.  Evans, Clarence, “Gerstaecker and the Konwells of White River Valley” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 10 (Spring 1951), 1-36.

 

Schoolcraft—Ripley County, MO.  Concerns Schoolcraft’s travels through the Ozarks.

 

Ferries, Bridges, Crossings, and Fords

 

            Ferries, bridges, crossings, and fords were important sites on the Southwest Trail, not only for their being necessary for travel.  They were potential sites for the development of businesses and the rise of settlements. Thus researchers will find the resources in this category useful in their understanding of the social and economic development along the Southwest Trail corridor.  Researchers should look at the subheadings on the folder tabs, where location is sometimes listed.

 

Bridges—Ouachita River—1845-1847.  An act to incorporate the Little Rock Bridge Company, with articles relating to construction of a bridge over the Ouachita.

 

Bridges—Saline River—1831.  Regarding permit for toll bridge to William S. Lockert.

 

Daniel’s Ferry—1831, 1833.  Advertisement for the reopening of the lower ferry at Pope’s plantation; advertisement for the sale of land at Daniel’s Ferry.

 

Ferries—Little Rock/North Little Rock—General Files—Indian Removal.  See the Indian Removal Collection

 

Ferries—Ouachita River.  Photocopies of deed records related to ferries on the Ouachita in Clark and Hot Spring County.

 

Ferry—Crittenden, Robert—1827.  Regarding permit to Crittenden.

 

Ferry—Daniel, Wright—1820.  Regarding permit to Daniel.

 

Ferry—Hix, William.  Regarding permit to Hix in Lawrence County, 1817.

 

Ferry—Russell, William.  Regarding permit to Russell, Little Rock.

 

Little Rock Bridge—1847.  Contracts let for the erection of a bridge across the Arkansas River.

 

Saline Crossing—1831.  Announcement of new post office at the Crossing.

 

Saline River Bridge.  List of five photographs of the 1891 bridge located at the site of Saline crossing; photographs are held by the Library of Congress.

 

Saline River Bridge—Moore, Lynn, “The Old River Bridge,” The Saline 27 (Spring 2012): 25-27.  Brief history of construction of the bridge at Saline Crossing.

 

Places

 

            The place files should be one of the most useful category for researchers of the Southwest Trail.  Like the category above, specific places are listed in the subheadings of the folder titles.  The Trail has to be located on a map before the corridor can be established and researchers can determine if their community is within that corridor.  Here, as in the category above, the researcher should always check the subheadings, for some files begin with the state, territory, or county with specific places listed as subheadings.

           

Antoine.  Discusses location and early history.

 

Antoineville—1855.  Advertisement for the sale of a business.

 

Arkansas Territory—Description of—1823—Arkansas Gazette, February 4, 1823.  Lists facts about communities, streams, and geography along the Little Rock to Mound Prairie corridor.

 

Arkansas Territory—Tanner, H. S., Memoir of the Recent Surveys (Philadelphia: The Author, 1829). Geographical description of Arkansas Territory with a list of new counties, new towns, and new roads.

 

Arkansas—Camp Pope—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—Clark County Circuit Court Index 1819-1878—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—Clark County—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—Collegeville—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—Fulton—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—Little Rock—Description 1830s—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—McHenry House (Ten Mile House)—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—North Little Rock—1819—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—North Little Rock—D’Cantillon—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—North Little Rock—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—North Little Rock—Landowners—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—North Little Rock—Site Report—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Arkansas—Rockport—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Benton—Hester-Lenz House.  History of this house on the Military Road.

 

Benton—Construction Bids—1837.  Advertisement.

 

Benton—Early History—Reprint, Ross, Margaret, “A Report of Benton’s Prosperous Beginning,” The Saline 5(June 1990) 65-67.     Contains an early eye-witness descriptive letter.       

 

Benton—Town Lots—1836.  Advertisement for sale of lots.

 

Clark County—Biscoeville, Clear Springs, Crittenden, Greenville, Halfway, Hearn, Hollywood, Raymond.  Profiles of towns and communities.

 

Clark County—Greenville.  Article by Lori Pinkston in The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  Web retrieved.

 

Clark County—History.  Joe May, “Clark County, Arkansas:  A History of Past and Present,” The Clark County Historical Journal (1990).  Makes much use of court records and other legal history sources.

 

Clark County—Pumphrey, Clint, “The Beaten Path.”  The subtitle says it :  “A Cartographical and Historical Study of the Southwest Trail in Clark County, Arkansas.”

 

Clark County—Townships—History—Graham, Shirley, “The Townships of Clark County, Arkansas,” The Clark County Historical Journal 2004.  Contains historical information about boundaries, population, and other matters as well as maps.

 

Collegeville.  Walter J. Kirby, “The Collegeville Post Office, PCHR, 24 (1976):  67-69.  Contains details about early postmasters.

 

Cross Roads.  Advertisement for lost horse owned by Wright Daniel.

 

DeBaun Place—1855.  Advertisement for a house of entertainment at the DeBaun place on the Southern Road.

 

Fulton—1819. Advertisement for the sale of lots at Fulton.

 

Fulton—1839.  Notice of the opening of a hotel at Fulton by Daniel P. Marble.

 

Hempstead County—Court Sites—1819-1824—Medearis, Mary, “Earliest Hempstead Copunty Court Sites,” Journal of the Hempstead County Historical Society 9 (Winter 1985) 3-7.  Includes discussion of reorganization of counties and changing county lines.

 

Hempstead County—Newspaper Excerpts—Washington Telegraph.  Brief news items from Washington and surrounding region.

 

Hot Spring County—Watermelon Island.  Mr. and Mrs. T. L. Hodges, “Watermelon Island,” The Heritage 8 (1981) 41-49.  History of the area along the Military Road near Midway.

 

Louisiana—Descriptive Account—1821.  Brief descriptions of people and land, including southwestern Arkansas.

 

Marlbrook.  Mary Medaris, ed., Sam Williams, Printer’s Devil:  Memorabilia.  Np:  Etter Printing Company, 1979.  History of early settlers in Marlbrook in Hempstead County.

 

Mound Prairie—History.  Walter N. Vernon, “Beginnings of Methodism in Arkansas,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 31 (1972), 356-371.  Relies heavily on the diary of William Stevenson, the founder.

 

Northwest Louisiana—Early Days.  Glenn Martel, “Early Days in Northwest Louisiana,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 12 (1953): 119-125.  Includes information on southwest Arkansas in the 1820s.

 

[Old Miller, Hempstead County, Washington]—Choctaw Letters 1834—File 23, Box 2—Choctaw Removal.  See Choctaw Removal Collection.

 

Ouachita River—File 34, Box 1—Choctaw Removal.  See Choctaw Removal Collection.

 

Ouachita Crossing—1837—File 76, Box 2—Chickasaw Removal.  See Chickasaw Removal Collection.

 

Pike County—Early Settlements.  Discusses Wolf Creek and Little Missouri.

 

Pike County—History.  Russell P. Baker, “Royston and Beyond:  Milling on the Little Missouri,” The Gems 4 (Fall 2001), 123-130.  Discusses Wolf Creek and other settlements.

 

Pike County—History.  The Gems of Pike County, Arkansas 3 (Winter 1992), 1-8.  Information on the geography, economy, resources, early settlers, and judicial and political affairs.

 

The Point—Randolph County.  Newspaper story about this Randolph County community.

 

Postal Service, 1819-1839 (Index to Arkansas Gazette).  Useful in identifying post offices in the 1820s and 1830s

 

Postal Service.  Clarence E. Carter, ed.  The Territorial Papers of the United States, Arkansas. Vol. 19, pp. 379, 515-517.  Lists postal routes in 1823. 

 

Pulaski County—Expenditures—1823.  Lists names of recipients of funds, dates, and amounts.

 

Red River Country—1819—Nashville Clarion, May 19, 1819.  Quotes a letter describing the region. 

 

Red River Raft—1838.  News item about steamboat traffic at Fulton.

 

Rockport.  Historic American Engineering Record:  Rockport Bridge (HAER No. AR-47), containing early history of Rockport.

 

Rockport.  Photographs and texts of historical plaques and markers in Rockport.

 

Rockport—History.  “Old Rockport Gets Two New Bridges,” The Heritage 7 (1980)109-111.  Contains historical information about early bridges at Rockport.

 

Saline County—Hogue, Etta Walker, “A brief economic history of Saline County”—File 75, Box 2—Chickasaw Removal.  See Chickasaw Removal Collection.

 

“Saline County,” Section IX.  David Dale Owen, Geological Reconnoissance of Arkansas in The Saline, March 1989.  Geology of Saline County

 

Salt Springs—1843.  Notice for the acceptance of bids for leasing salt springs.

 

Ten-Mile House.  Ruby R. Walton, “An Old House Gathers Legend,” Arkansas Democrat Magazine, Apr 17, 1960.  Describes house and early history of the Bonaparte McHenry family.

 

Washington—Hempstead County.  Map showing Post Office location, 1898;  Advertisement for sale of town lots 1826.

 

 

Maps, Cartography, and GPS Data

 

            The study of maps depicting Arkansas at various times in history is necessary for the research of the Southwest Trail, which research is, in reality, an exercise in map making.  The maps in this category provide a good start for the researcher, who can use research in the category above to help fill in the blank spaces in the Southwest Trail corridor.

 

Cartography—Historiography—Edney, Matthew H., “Cartography without ‘Progress’”—1993. 

 

Cartography—Historiography—Harley, J. B., “Deconstructing the Map”—1992

 

GLO Plats—Southwest Trail Corridor—Part I.  General Land Office plats relevant to the SWT corridor north of the Arkansas River.  See also General Land Office Records section below.

 

GLO Plats—Southwest Trail Corridor—Part II.  General Land Office plats relevant to the SWT corridor south of the Arkansas River.  See also General Land Office Records section below.

 

GPS Data.  Global Positioning System data compiled by Emmett Powers and relates to trees, markers, and other features of the Trail corridor from I-430 southward.

 

Hempstead County—Pre-1836-Post-1855.  Copy from the Royston Collection, Southwest Arkansas Archives.

Map—Ripley County, MO/Randolph County.

 

Map—Southwest Trail—Counties Crossed. 

 

Maps—Arkansas—SNRC Digital Archives.  Thirty-three historical maps of Arkansas, web retrieved, are available for public use.  See also Maps section below.

 

Maps—Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, General Highway Map (Counties) Series.  Includes maps of Randolph, Lawrence, Sharp, Independence, and Izard counties.

 

Maps—Butler Center—Inventory (2011).  List of relevant maps available for use at the Butler Center.  See also Maps section below.

 

National Archives and Records Service.  Guide to Cartographic Records in the National Archives.  Washington, D.C.:  National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1971.  This is an old but still quite useful source.

 

Southwest Trail GPS Readings.  Covers the trail north and south of the Arkansas River as well as some border points in Oklahoma.

 

Southwest Trail Crossings:  Rivers, Streams, and other Observations by Latitude, Altitude, Date of Observation, and Notes

 

Loose Maps available at the Sequoyah National Research Center:

            USGS Quadrangle Topographical 7.5 Minute Series:  Little Rock, Alexander, Bryant,                   Benton, Traskwood, Haskell, Malvern North, Malvern South, Donaldson,    Social              Hill, Caddo Valley, Hollywood, Antoine, Okolona North, Okalona South, Piny                         Grove, Pisgah, Sheppard, McNab, Fulton.  Scale:  1: 24 000

            USGS Topographical 30x60 Minute Series:  Little Rock, Malvern, Arkadelphia, Hope.                  Scale:  1:100 000

            USGS Arkansas Index to Topographical and Other Map Coverage

            Trail of Tears.  Arkansas Chapter Trail of Tear Association, June 2009.

            Arkansas.  J. H. Colton & Co., 1855.

            Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas, Exhibiting the Post Offices, Post Roads, Canals,                               Rail Roads, &c.  David H. Burr, 1839.

            Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department.  General Highway Map                                      (Counties) Series:  Pulaski, Saline, Hot Spring, Clark, Pike, Hempstead.

            North Little Rock and Little Rock.  Land office Maps of 1832, 1853, 1855 and 1856 Geo-                                   referenced over Pulaski Area Geographic Information System (PAgis)                                Data.              2003

            Topographic Map of the State of Arkansas.  Arkansas Geological Survey, 1930.

 

General Land Office Records

 

            The records listed in this category relate only to the counties through which the Southwest Trail corridor passes, both north and south of the Arkansas River. 

 

General Land Office Records—T9S R24W—Hempstead County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T10S R 24W—Hempstead County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T11S R24W—Hempstead County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T11S R25W—Hempstead County. Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T12S R25W—Hempstead County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

General Land Office Records—T12S R26W—Hempstead County. Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T13S R26W—Hempstead County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T8S R23W—Pike County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T9S R23W—Pike County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T6S R19W—Clark County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T6S R20W—Clark County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T7S R20W—Clark County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T7S R21W—Clark County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T7S R22W—Clark County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T8S R22W—Clark County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T3S R17W—Hot Spring County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T1S R14W—Saline County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T1S R15W—Saline County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T2S R15W—Saline County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T2S R16W—Saline County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T3S R16W—Saline County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T1N R12W—Pulaski County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T1N R13W—Pulaski County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

General Land Office Records—T1S R13W—Pulaski County.  Lists names of landowners and descriptions of the land they owned in the township through which the trail passed.

 

County Records

 

            Materials located in this category have been gleaned from county records relating primarily to land ownership, taxation, and road maintenance.

 

Clark County—Court Records—1834-1843

 

Clark County—Court Records—1835-1866

 

Clark County—Court Records—1840-1842

 

Clark County—Deed Records—1822-1839

 

Clark County (Pike)—Deed Records—1836

 

Clark County (Pike)—Deed Records—1837

 

Clark County—Index to Deeds—1821-1854

 

Clark County—Miscellaneous Court Records—1819-1834 (Part 1)

 

Clark County—Miscellaneous Court Records—1819-1834 (Part 2)

 

Clark County—Road Overseers—1838-1866

 

Hempstead County—Circuit Court Records—1819-1822

 

Hempstead County—Court of Common Pleas Records—1819-1822

 

Hempstead County—Court of Common Pleas and Circuit Court Records—1824-1838 (transcript)

 

Hempstead County—Court of Common Pleas and Circuit Court Records—1829-1831 (transcript)

 

Hempstead County—Court Records—1820-21, 1837-40

 

Hempstead County—Court Records—July 1840-July 1843

 

Hempstead County—Court Records—July 1843-Jan. 1845

 

Hempstead County—Deed Records—1822

 

Hempstead County—Deed Records—1835-1844

 

Hempstead County—Road Overseers—1839-1840

 

Hempstead County—Road Viewers—1822, 1826, 1827

 

Hempstead County—Tax Records—1828, 1832

 

Hempstead County—Taxpayers—1839

 

Hot Spring County—Deeds—1829-1845

 

Hot Spring County—Deeds, Mortgages and Instruments, Book A—1837-1842.  In The Heritage 5 (1978):  141-151.

 

Pike County—Tax Records—Land Holders—1837

 

Pike County—Tax List—1839. List of names only in alphabetical order.

 

Pike County—Tax Records—Land holders—1840

 

Pike County.  See also Clark County (Pike)—Deed Records—1837

 

Pulaski County—Correspondence—2011  Regarding missing county court records.

 

Pulaski County (in re Saline County)—Deed Records—1832-1833

 

Pulaski County—Tax Records—1828

 

Pulaski County—Tax Records—1835

 

Saline County—Court Records—1836-1848

Saline County—Deeds—1836-1840—Saline County History and Heritage Society Quarterly 1 (June 1986) 30-37.

 

Saline County—Deeds—1837-1850

 

Saline County—Tax Records—1828 (Part)

 

Saline County—Tax Records—1828 (Part 2)

 

Saline County—Tax Records—1837

 

Saline County—Tax Records—1845

 

Saline County.  See also Pulaski County (in re Saline County) above.

 

 

 

People.  See also Census Records and General Land Office Records.

 

            This category of files contains information on individuals who, it has been determined, lived within the Southwest Trail corridor.  Research of those individuals is necessary for an understanding of the social, economic, and political history of communities along the Trail.

 

1816 Territory Tax List.  Alphabetical list of names.  Web retrieved.

 

Adams, Samuel—1850.  Death notice of, at his home in Saline County.

 

Alexander Family—1740-1858.  Pike County family Bible records.

 

Arkansas Gazette Agents—1840. Lists names and locations in various counties.

 

Barkman, Jacob—File 4, Box 2—Chickasaw Removal.  See Chickasaw Removal Collection.

 

Beebe, Roswell—1838.  Notice regarding land in Fulton.

 

Brown, Jacob--1843.  Notice to wood choppers and intruders on his property, one and one-half miles southwest of Little Rock on the Washington road.

 

Brown, Jacob—General Files—Indian Removal.  See Indian Removal Collection.

 

Cates, Isaac—1804-1812. Cates’ early settlement attempts in Clark County

 

Crutchfield, P. T.—1841.  Advertisement for sale of property.

 

Cummins, Ebenezer—1847. Advertisement for sale of land about one and one-half miles from Little Rock on the southern road.

 

Cummins, John H.—1823.  List of licenses, Clark County.

 

DeBaun, James—1843.  Notice of trustees’ sale.

 

Dodd, David, et al.—1837.  Resolutions regarding the State Bank.

 

Edmiston, Zebulon--1831. Biographical information on this early settler of Antoine.

 

Executive Register of the Arkansas Territory, 1819-1836, Sorted by Date.  Prepared by Robert Meyers.  List sorted by date includes name, jurisdiction, minor jurisdiction, commission, and remarks.

 

Executive Register of the Arkansas Territory, 1819-1836, Sorted by Jurisdiction. Prepared by Robert Meyers.  List sorted by jurisdiction includes name, jurisdiction, minor jurisdiction, commission, and remarks.

 

Executive Register of the Arkansas Territory, 1819-1836, Sorted by Name.  Prepared by Robert Meyers.  List sorted by name includes name, jurisdiction, minor jurisdiction, commission, and remarks.

 

Executive Register of the Arkansas Territory.  1819-1836.  Another version of the above.

 

Featherstonhough—Proper Names on the Military Road/SWT—1834.  List compiled by Scott Akridge relates to the road from Little Rock to the Red River.  Includes interpretive comments.

 

Featherstonhaugh—Proper Names Left Off Previous List.  List compiled by Scott Akridge includes interpretive comments.

 

Fish, Thomas.  Biographical information, locating residence near Antoine Bridge.

 

Flannigan, Harris.  Biographical information on this Clark County resident.

 

Galloway, David V.—1844.  Advertisement for stolen horse from farm about five miles out on the southern road.  

 

Gentry, William.  Biographical information, locating residence between Antoine and Little Missouri.

 

Gibson, Lorenzo—General Files—Indian Removal

 

Hickman, William—1830. Notice of sale of his land, slaves, and stock at Washington.

 

Hicks, W. F. and J. C. M.—1849.  Advertisement for sale of lumber twelve miles south on the Washington road.

 

Hignight, Abner.  His record in the 1850 Clark County census.

 

Hignight, Abner—General Files—Indian Removal

 

Hignight, Abner.  See also Cates, Isaac.

 

Hutt, William S.—1846.  Advertisement for sale of farm on Military Road, one mile beyond Collegeville.

 

Ishtehotopa—File 28, Box 2, Chickasaw Removal

 

Justices of the Peace—1830.  Lists names in each township of each county.

 

Kopman, William—1840.  Advertises new warehouse at Fulton.

 

Land Descriptions—Owners.  List of land descriptions along the Little Rock to Fulton corridor, showing owners of most parcels.

 

Liggin, James N.—1840.  Advertisement for sale of farm nine miles south of Little Rock on the Washington Road.

 

Lightfoot, Elijah H.—1840.  Advertisement for a runaway yoke of steers, eight miles south of Little Rock on the Washington Road.

 

Lockert (Lockhart), William S.—General Files—Indian Removal

 

Lockert, Eleanor—1840.  Obituary for Eleanor, widow of James Lockert.

 

Lockert, James—1823.  Notice regarding marriage of his daughter Eleanor to William Franklin.

 

Lockert, James—1828.  Notice of preaching at his home on Saline River.

 

Lockert, James—1829.  Notice of Lockert’s death.

 

Lockert, William—1836.  Notice regarding Lockert’s marriage.

 

Lockhart, Eleanor—1829.  Election notice of polling places.

 

Lockhart, William S.  Landreth, Eddie G., Comp., “A Pioneer Mini-Biography—William S. Lockhard,”  The Saline 7 (March 1992) 18-26.

 

Long, A. T. W.—1839.  Advertisement for his house of entertainment and corn and fodder for sale on the road to Washington.

 

McHenry, B. J.—1837, 1846.  Advertisement for stolen horse and notice of trustees’ sale.

 

McWilliams, Dr. F. A.—1836, 1838.  Advertisement for sale of stand, advertisement for services as physician, and notice for return of loaned books.

 

Owen Family—Billingsley, Carolyn Earle, “The Owen Family:  Building on Politics in Early Arkansas,” The Saline 7 (June 1992) 73-89.

 

Owen, Ezra.  Indenture regarding sale of land by John Pope to Owen, April 23, 1834.

 

Owen, Ezra—1837, 1844.  Advertisement for sale of farm at  Collegeville on the road to Red River; notice regarding land title.

 

Patent Medicine Dealers—1838.  Lists names in various counties.

 

Patent Medicine Dealers—1847.  Lists names in various towns.

 

People and Places on the SWT from Indian Removal Records—List.  Lists names of people and place names found in Indian removal documents, with Box and file number references to SNRC Indian Removal documents.

 

Pike County—Tax List—1839.  Lists names only

 

Pike County—Wood, Hasley, Barkman. Biographical information on Richard Wood, Samuel Hasley, and Jacob Barkman, who lived along the trail in Clark and Pike counties.

 

Public Officials—Arkansas Territory—List.  Alphabetical list of persons, the county (counties) they served in, and their official positions, including the dates of appointment.  Web retrieved.

 

Pulaski County.  Margaret Smith Ross, “Squatters Rights:  Some Pulaski County Settlers Prior to 1814,” Pulaski County Historical Review 47 (Fall 1999): 55-65.

 

Reyburn, Joseph W.  Advertisement for sale of farm, forty miles south of Little Rock on the road to Fulton.

 

Rorer, David—General Files—Indian Removal

 

Russell, William—1820.  Notice regarding land dispute in Pulaski County between Russell and Stephen F. Austin, et al.

 

Rutherford Family—File 40, Box 2, Chickasaw Removal

 

Rutherford, Archibald.  Mrs. E. E. Wall, “Archibald H. Rutherford:  An Arkansas Pioneer,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 5 (Winter 1946), 388-401.  Early resident of Clark County.

 

Saline County.  Billingsley, Carolyn Earle, “Settlement Patterns in Saline County, Arkansas,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 52 (Summer 1993):  107-128.

 

Speer, John.  Affidavit regarding a controversy in Clark County, refers to various individuals in Clark and Hempstead counties and to the ferry at Little River.

 

Thorn, Thomas—1845, 1846.  Notice of sale of farm, tavern stand, and merchant mill twelve miles south of Little Rock and notice of trustee’s sale.

 

Trammell, David—1832.  Notice of sale of his land in Clark County.

 

Ward, James.  Biographical information, locating home between Antoine and Little Missouri River, next to William Gentry.

 

Williams, John W.—1836.  Letter locating Williams on the Military Road seven miles from Washington.

 

Woodruff, William—General Files—Indian Removal

 

Wyatt’s Travel Diary—Proper Names—1836.  List compiled by Scott Akridge, listing people and places with comments regarding such matters as distances, geography, and structures.

 

Census Records

 

            The records in this category contain Arkansas census information for relevant counties south of the Arkansas River up to 1850.  Researchers have access to later census records in most libraries with a strong genealogical research emphasis.

 

Clark County—Census—1820.  Lists names only.  Web retrieved

 

Clark County—Census—1830.  Lists heads of households with number of people in various age groups, both male and female.

 

Clark County—Greenville—Census—1850. Lists names, ages, sex, occupation, and place of birth of members of each household.

 

Clark County—Sheriff’s Census—1829.  List of names in alphabetical order.

 

Pike County—Census—1850.  Lists names, ages, sex, occupation, and place of birth of members of each household.

 

Hot Spring County—Census—1830 and 1840.  Lists heads of households with number of people in various age groups, both male and female.

 

Hempstead County—Census (reconstructed)—1820.  Lists names only.

 

Pulaski County (Saline Area)—Census—1830.  Lists heads of households with number of people in various age groups, both male and female.

 

Pike County—Census—1840.  Lists heads of households with number of people in various age groups, both male and female.

 

 

 

Archeology

 

            Much of the archeological study of the Southwest Trail corridor is yet to be done.

 

Field Notes, No. 359 (March/April 2011) and No. 360 (May/June 2011).  Newsletter of the Arkansas Archeological Society.  Issues contain articles on archeological exploration at Washington, Arkansas.

 

Lankford, George E.  “Desoto in Arkansas:  Another Speculative Note,” The Arkansas Archeologist, Vol. 34 (1993):  79-83.

 

Natchitoches Trace—Archeology Sites along.  Sketch maps showing sites north of Current River.

 

Schambach, Frank F., “The End of the Trail:  The Route of Hernando De Soto’s Army through Southwest Arkansas and East Texas,” The Arkansas Archeologist, 27&28: (1986 & 1987), 9-33.

 

Southwest Missouri—Settlement Patterns.  Study relates to first half of the nineteenth century.

 

Washington.  Newspaper article on the 2012 explorations at Washington.

 

 

 

Correspondence

 

            The correspondence among scholars, planners, researchers, and institutional personnel will be useful to researchers because contains research questions asked by correspondents, and it contains information related to research strategies, possibilities for interpretation, repositories, and related historical topics that need more in-depth research.  Some correspondence includes attachments of information that is not represented in the files listed above.  Correspondence is filed in chronological order.

 

Correspondence—December 2010

 

Correspondence—January 2011

 

Correspondence—February 2011

 

Correspondence—March 2011

 

Correspondence—April 2011

 

Correspondence—May 2011

 

Correspondence—June 2011

 

Correspondence—July 2011

 

Correspondence—August 2011

 

Correspondence—September 2011

 

Correspondence—October 2011

 

Correspondence—February 2012

 

Correspondence—March 2012

 

Correspondence—April 2012

 

Correspondence—May 2012

 

Correspondence—June 2012

 

Correspondence—July 2012

 

Correspondence—August 2012

 

Correspondence—September 2012

 

Correspondence—October 2012

 

 

Scott Akridge Collection

 

            Scott Akridge generously made his files on the Southwest Trail available to the SNRC to copy.  Some of the items listed below were not copied, primarily photocopies of books housed in the SNRC library, photocopies of items already possessed by the Center, and items that are readily available online or in print.  Most of the information in the Akridge Collection relates to the Trail corridor north of the Arkansas River.  However, it is extremely important in helping researchers construct a context for research on the corridor south of the river or on the Southwest Trail in its entirety.

 

Akridge Files—Index.  Compiled by Scott Akridge, this index lists items in his original collection.

 

AAS Site Form

 

AHPP—SWT Meeting—November 17, 2008

 

AHC—Military Records

 

Arkansas History Commission—Maps—2003

 

Arkansas Map—Early

 

Arkansas Map—Early

 

Arkansas Map—Historical Territorial Period

 

Arkansas Map—Carey—1814

 

Arkansas Map—1834

 

Arkansas Map—Tanner—1836

 

Arkansas Map—1841

 

Arkansas Map—1840s

 

Arkansas Map—1850

 

Arkansas Map—1861

 

Arkansas Map—With Louisiana—1864

 

Arkansas Map—1868

 

Arkansas Map—1914

 

Arkansas Map—1926

 

Arkansas Map—UALR Archives—2005

 

Arkansas Map—Military Road—Construction—1827

 

Arkansas News—SWT—Conditions—1836-1860

 

Arkansas Map—Geographic Divisions

 

Arkansas Maps—Butler Center

 

Cadron Settlement Arkansas:  An Archaeological Account—Smith, Sam—1974

 

Herndon, Dallas—Centennial History of Arkansas

 

Camp, Worth—Choctaw and Cherokee in Union County

 

Camp, Worth—“Choctaw on the Ouachita”

 

Concrete Pole and Marker Idea

 

Early, Ann—Salt Springs—Cleburne County

 

Meadows, Rick—Early Roads in Arkansas

 

Feldman and Associates—Scott Foresman

 

Franzwa, Greg—Patrice Press

 

Fulton—Spring Hill Map

 

Guide to Using Goodspeed’s

 

Heritage Trails Pins—Marilyn Heifner

 

Camp, Worth—“Hunter and Dunbar on the Ouachita

 

Indian Removals—EOA

 

AHPP Web Site—Indian Removal Routes in Arkansas

 

Kent, Carolyn—Heritage Trails Initiative

 

Akridge, Glen, and Scott Akridge—“Late Mississippian and Protohistoric Occupations in the Little  Red River Valley

 

Missouri Pacific Railroad:  The First 125 Years

 

Old Military Road—War of the Rebellion

 

Moffat, Walter—“Out West in Arkansas, 1819-1840,” AHQ, 12 (Spring, 1958):  33-44

 

Underwood, Lawrence—Overland Stages

 

The Path of Least Resistance:  Transportation in Arkansas, 1800-2000

 

Place Names and Place Name Study

 

Emmett Powers—SWT Recording Form—2009

 

Roads and Highways--EOA

 

Fordyce, John—Routes of Travel in Arkansas—1919

 

Salt/Saline/Salado

 

Salt Making--EOA

 

Settlements in Arkansas Territory—Jerry Hanson

 

Sloan, Kitty—TOT/SWT Maps of NE Arkansas

 

Barnwell, Virgile—“Southwestern Trail”

 

Akridge, Glen—“The Southwest Trail in Prehistoric Times”

 

SWT Appropriations--1836

 

SWT Bibliography

 

Akridge, Scott—SWT Research—November 11, 2005

 

SWT Research Group—Scott Akridge Letter to—7-21-09

 

SWT/OMR Elevation Comparisons

 

Stevenson, William—Autobiography—Conclusion

 

Territorial Papers—Arkansas

 

Trail of Tears AHPP/GIS

 

Trammel’s Trace

 

The Wilderness Gallery:  Indian Territory and Slave Territory

 

Schoolcraft’s Ozark Journal, 1818-1819

 

Lawrence County Papers:  1815/1816.  Includes Transcript of 1829 Sheriff’s census

 

Ferries on the White River

 

Featherstonhaugh, G. W.—Photographs (copies)

 

Featherstonhaugh—Notes

 

Featherstonhaugh, G. W.—Proper Names on the Southwest Trail—1834

 

Arkansas—County Formation—Maps

 

“Arkansas after the War:  From the Journal of Frederich Gerstaecker, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 32 (Autumn 1973):  255-273.

 

Cairo and Fulton Railroad—Map

 

Otwald—Visit to White County

 

Lesson Plans Referencing Gerstaecker

 

Patsy Odom, Roger Morris—Breezy Acres Ranch

 

Gerstaecker—Encyclopedia of Arkansas Article

 

Gerstaecker—Dates

 

Frederich Gerstaecker—Notes

 

GPS—Gerstaecker

 

Photographs and Handouts on Gerstaecker

 

Erkswine Grave—Search for

 

Stewart Land Records Search

 

Natchitoches Area Map—Meetch File

 

Meetch, Joseph—“Joseph Meetch’s Arkansas Wilderness” by Emmett Powers

 

Blackland Prairie Fossil Information

 

Carolina Parakeets—Meetch Diary

 

James’s Account of S. H. Long’s Expedition, 1819-1820—Part IV

 

Moore, Clinton Harrison—1839 Account

 

Moore, Clinton Harrison Family History—Log from South Carolina to Texas—1840

 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe—Proper Names on Southwest Trail, 1819—Notes

 

Schwab—Travels in the Old South—ca. 1846

 

Wright, Claiborn—Six Months from Tennessee

 

Wyatt, William N.—Wyatt’s Travel Diary

 

 

 

 

 

 

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