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Photo Left:  Jackson Military Road cut exiting Washington, Arkansas, to the North East (2005)

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interest in the route and history of the Old Southwest Trail in Arkansas.

 

 

 

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From Ralph Wilcox at Arkansas Historic Preservation Program

Those sections that have the best historic integrity would have the best chance for listing on the National Register.  For each segment that you want to nominate, the first step is to complete a Determination of Eligibility (DOE), which can be found on our website.  (See http://www.arkansaspreservation.org/historic%2Dproperties/national-register/)

Also, when selecting segments for nomination, I would keep in mind the registration requirements that we developed for Trail of Tears segments, and I have included those below. 

 

From Ralph Wilcox at Arkansas Historic Preservation Program

 Registration Requirements - Roadbeds

 

1.         Location

 

In order to retain integrity of location, roadbeds used by the Cherokee Trail of Tears must have the following:

 

_          If sufficient historical evidence exists that identifies the roadbed as an 1837-39 route and that it was used by the Cherokee, and;

 

_          If the accuracy of the roadbed is supported by historical accounts and local historians.

 

2.         Design

 

In order to retain integrity of design, the following characteristics are required:

 

_          The roadbed must retain physical characteristics typical of an early 19th century roadbed. This would include retention of original widths and embankments.    

 

3. Materials

 

The Trail of Tears took place over existing roadbeds of the early 19th century. Roadbeds of this period were commonly dirt footpaths or wagon roads. Some roads of the period were constructed with high concentrations of chert and gravel, which resulted in a mixture of surfaces in the roadbed of earth and naturally occurring rock. In the 20th century it was common for roads to be improved with 20th century gravel surfaces. As technology improved, roads were often widened and paved with modern materials such as asphalt or concrete.

 

In order to retain integrity of materials, the following characteristics are required:

 

_          The roadbed should be of earth, naturally occurring chert or gravel, or a modern gravel surface. Modern paving materials such as concrete or asphalt are not common to a 19th century roadbed and roads with modern paving materials will not be acceptable.    

  

4. Workmanship

 

Integrity of workmanship is intertwined with the design features of early 19th century roadbeds. Local residents often created and typically maintained roadbeds in their area during the 19th century. Workmanship consisted mainly of the physical labor of clearing the road and occasionally widening the pathway, cutting trees, and digging earth embankments on slopes. No notable engineering or design features are known to have occurred on the various routes that the Cherokee traveled in the 1830s.   

 

In order to retain integrity of workmanship, the following characteristics are required:

 

_          The roadbed should be of earth, naturally occurring chert or gravel, or a modern gravel surface. Modern paving materials such as concrete or asphalt are not common to a 19th century roadbed and roads with modern paving materials will not be acceptable.

 

5. Feeling

 

The feeling of a roadbed is conveyed by its location, by its design and materials, by its surroundings, and by its ability to convey the sense of a 19th century roadbed. To be considered eligible, sections of the Trail of Tears must evoke the sense of traveling along the road during its period of significance.

 

In order to retain integrity of feeling, the following characteristics are required:

 

_          The roadbed must retain physical characteristics of an early 19th century roadbed such as original widths, embankments, and surfaces of earth, naturally occurring chert or gravel, or a modern gravel surface.

 

_          The section of roadbed must be of sufficient length to evoke a sense of travel or destination. Lengthy sections of roadbed that are broken into discontiguous segments will also retain integrity of feeling if the intervening property is minimal and a sense of cohesion remains evident. However, each of the individual lengths or sections within such a discontiguous segment should individually meet registration requirements.

 

_          Roads were often deeply eroded due to heavy travel and typical erosion. Eligible sections will be characterized by a sense of depth and with embankments of varying heights. 

 

6. Setting

 

As in the case of feeling, the setting of the Trail of Tears must be able to convey a sense of time and place from its early 19th century period of significance. In 1838, much of the routes used by the Cherokee were through sparsely settled rural farmland and woodlands. The settings of roadbeds should retain this rural character.       

   

In order to retain integrity of setting, the following characteristics are required:

 

_          The rural settings of roadbeds should be maintained and be largely characterized by agricultural use or woodlands. 

 

_          Post-1839 buildings or structures should be limited in number along the length of the roadbed. Eligible sections will either have few post-1839 buildings or structures within view, or such buildings or structures will be widely scattered and not impact the overall visual qualities of the roadbed setting.

 

7. Association

 

Eligible sections of roadbeds will possess sufficient physical features and setting to convey its 19th century sense of time and place. 

 

In order to retain integrity of association, the following characteristics are required:

 

_          The roadbed must retain physical characteristics of an early 19th century roadbed such as original widths, embankments, and surfaces of earth, naturally occurring chert or gravel, or a modern gravel surface. Modern paving materials such as concrete or asphalt are not common to a 19th century roadbed and roads with modern paving materials will not be acceptable.       

 

_          The rural settings of roadbeds should be maintained and be largely characterized by agricultural use or woodlands. 

 

_          Post-1839 buildings or structures should be limited in number along the length of the roadbed. Eligible sections will either have few post-1839 buildings or structures within view, or such buildings or structures will be widely scattered and not impact the overall visual qualities of the roadbed setting.

 

 

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Last modified: 01/14/13